Psoralene

Psoralene IP

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Reviewed by

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Gaurav Sood

Partner - HimPharm

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Dr B M Sood

Chairman - HimPharm

Psoralene Manufactured by HimPharm

Category: Phytochemical
Trade Names: Psoralen, 8-Methoxypsoralen
Routes of Administration: Oral, Topical
ATC Code: Not Applicable

Identifiers

  • CAS Number: 66-97-7
  • PubChem CID: 4780
  • ChemSpider ID: 4614

Chemical and Physical Data

  • Molecular Formula C11H6O3
  • Molar Mass 186.16 g/mol

SMILES: COc1ccc2cc(C=CC(=O)c2c1)O

InChI: InChI=1S/C11H6O3/c1-13-9-4-2-7(3-5-9)11-8(12)6-10(14)15-11/h2-6H,1H3

Introduction

Psoralene

Psoralene, also known as psoralen, stands as the foundational compound in the family of natural products termed furocoumarins. With a chemical composition represented by C11H6O3, Psoralene holds significant therapeutic potential, particularly in dermatological treatments and phototherapy. 

Its molecular structure, characterized by a fused furan ring, distinguishes it as a derivative of umbelliferone, showcasing its structural kinship with coumarin compounds.

Psoralene’s unique properties have garnered attention across various industries, notably pharmaceuticals, health, and natural products. Its high UV absorbance capacity makes it indispensable in treatments targeting skin disorders like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. 

Additionally, Psoralene finds applications in photopheresis and alopecia treatment, expanding its utility beyond traditional dermatological therapies.

Psoralen

Impact of Psoralene on the Pharmaceutical, Drug, and Natural Products Industry

Psoralene’s is used in dermatological treatments globally. It is incorporated into PUVA (Psoralen + UVA) therapy for the management of various skin conditions, offering patients effective and targeted treatment options. Psoralene’s versatility extends beyond dermatology, with ongoing research exploring its potential in diverse therapeutic areas.

The pharmaceutical and drug sectors have witnessed a surge in demand for Psoralene-based medications and formulations, reflecting the growing recognition of its efficacy and safety profile. Its inclusion in standardized treatment protocols underscores its significance as a cornerstone therapy in dermatological care. 

Moreover, Psoralene’s compatibility with modern manufacturing processes has facilitated its integration into pharmaceutical pipelines, paving the way for novel formulations and treatment modalities.

In the world of natural products, Psoralene’s prominence as a phytochemical of immense therapeutic value has catalyzed innovation and product development. Herbal remedies and nutraceutical formulations harness its medicinal properties to address many health concerns, ranging from skin disorders to immune modulation. 

As consumer preferences shift towards holistic healthcare solutions, Psoralene remains poised to play a pivotal role in shaping the future of natural products and wellness industries.

Understanding Psoralene

What is Psoralene?

Psoralene, or psoralen, represents a class of naturally occurring organic compounds known as linear furocoumarins. Structurally akin to coumarin, Psoralene’s molecular architecture incorporates a fused furan ring, distinguishing it as a derivative of umbelliferone. 

Its presence is ubiquitous in various botanical sources, including Psoralea corylifolia, common fig, celery, parsley, West Indian satinwood, and citrus fruits, underscoring its prevalence in nature.

Uses of Psoralene

The therapeutic applications of Psoralene span diverse medical disciplines, with dermatology being a primary focus area. PUVA therapy, combining Psoralene with UVA irradiation, stands as a cornerstone treatment for psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Psoralene’s photosensitizing properties enhance the efficacy of UVA radiation, facilitating targeted phototherapy for various dermatological conditions.

Furthermore, Psoralene finds utility in photopheresis, where it is employed in combination with extracted leukocytes to treat autoimmune disorders and graft-versus-host disease. Its ability to sensitize cells to UV radiation underscores its therapeutic versatility, offering clinicians a potent tool in managing immune-mediated conditions.

Physical Characteristics of Psoralene

Psoralene manifests as a crystalline solid, typically appearing as colorless to pale yellow crystals. Its solubility in organic solvents like ethanol and ether underscores its lipophilic nature, facilitating its incorporation into topical formulations and pharmaceutical preparations. The molecular weight of Psoralene, calculated at 186.16 g/mol, underscores its compact structure and molecular stability.

Extraction and Processing of Psoralene

The extraction of Psoralene from botanical sources entails a series of sequential steps, beginning with the selection and procurement of raw materials rich in furocoumarin content. Psoralea corylifolia seeds represent a primary source of Psoralene, with extraction methods typically involving solvent-based techniques or supercritical fluid extraction. 

The isolated crude extract undergoes purification and concentration processes to yield high-purity Psoralene suitable for pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications.

Significance of Psoralene

Psoralene’s significance lies in its many therapeutic properties and broad-spectrum applications across dermatology, immunology, and oncology. As a photosensitizer, Psoralene enhances the efficacy of UVA radiation in targeted phototherapy, offering patients a safe and efficacious treatment modality for various skin disorders. 

Its immunomodulatory effects further augment its therapeutic utility, positioning Psoralene as a versatile pharmacological agent in the management of autoimmune conditions and cutaneous malignancies.

Applications and Industries Utilizing Psoralene

Psoralene’s applications transcend traditional medical domains, including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and herbal medicine industries. In pharmaceuticals, Psoralene serves as a key ingredient in PUVA therapy formulations, catering to the diverse needs of patients with chronic skin conditions. 

Its inclusion in herbal remedies and dietary supplements underscores its popularity as a natural health supplement, offering consumers a holistic approach to wellness and vitality.

Exploring the History of Psoralene

Discovery of Psoralene

The discovery of Psoralene traces its origins to ancient civilizations, where herbalists and healers recognized the therapeutic potential of Psoralea corylifolia seeds in treating skin ailments and inflammatory conditions. 

Historical texts and medical manuscripts document the use of Psoralene-rich botanicals in traditional medicine systems across diverse cultural settings, highlighting its enduring legacy as a medicinal herb.

Pioneers in Psoralene Research

The modern elucidation of Psoralene’s pharmacological properties owes much to the pioneering efforts of scientists and researchers who sought to unravel its therapeutic potential. The isolation and characterization of Psoralene from botanical sources marked a significant milestone in phytochemical research, paving the way for subsequent studies elucidating its mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Evolution of Psoralene in Modern Medicine

The advent of modern medicine witnessed a resurgence of interest in Psoralene, spurred by advancements in pharmacology and dermatology. The synthesis of Psoralene derivatives and analogs broadened its therapeutic repertoire, offering clinicians a diverse array of treatment options for various dermatological conditions. 

The refinement of PUVA therapy protocols further optimized Psoralene’s clinical utility, enhancing treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Landmarks in Psoralene Development

Key milestones in Psoralene development include the establishment of standardized PUVA therapy protocols, the discovery of novel Psoralene derivatives with enhanced pharmacokinetic profiles, and the integration of Psoralene-based formulations into mainstream dermatological practice. 

The recognition of Psoralene as a first-line therapy for psoriasis and vitiligo underscores its pivotal role in modern dermatology, positioning it as a cornerstone treatment modality for chronic skin disorders.

Exploring Psoralene in Pharmaceuticals and Health Industry

Therapeutic Uses and Properties of Psoralene

Psoralene’s therapeutic spectrum includes a wide array of dermatological, immunological, and oncological conditions, owing to its photosensitizing and immunomodulatory properties. In dermatology, Psoralene serves as a potent adjunct to UVA radiation in PUVA therapy, facilitating the treatment of psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. 

Its ability to sensitize target cells to UV radiation enhances treatment efficacy while minimizing adverse effects on surrounding tissues, making it an indispensable tool in managing chronic skin disorders.

Beyond dermatology, Psoralene finds utility in photopheresis, a specialized treatment modality used in autoimmune disorders and graft-versus-host disease. By sensitizing leukocytes to UV radiation, Psoralene facilitates targeted immunomodulation, modulating aberrant immune responses and restoring immune homeostasis. 

Its role in photopheresis underscores its versatility as an immunomodulatory agent, offering clinicians a safe and effective treatment option for autoimmune conditions.

Pharmacological Insights and Clinical Studies

Pharmacological investigations into Psoralene have explained its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential across diverse medical disciplines. Preclinical studies have highlighted Psoralene’s ability to induce apoptosis in malignant cells, inhibit cytokine-mediated inflammation, and modulate immune cell function. 

Clinical trials evaluating Psoralene-based therapies have demonstrated favourable treatment outcomes in psoriasis, vitiligo, and cutaneous lymphomas, reaffirming its status as a frontline therapy in dermatological care.

Psoralene Derivatives and Formulations

The development of Psoralene derivatives and analogs has expanded its pharmacological repertoire, offering clinicians enhanced treatment options with improved bioavailability and safety profiles. Psoralene derivatives, such as 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), exhibit enhanced photosensitizing properties and reduced systemic toxicity, making them ideal candidates for PUVA therapy and photopheresis. 

Formulation innovations, including liposomal and nanoparticulate delivery systems, have further optimized Psoralene’s therapeutic efficacy, enhancing drug stability and tissue penetration while minimizing adverse effects.

The Raw Material: Natural Source of Psoralene

Overview of Raw Material for Psoralene

Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi or bakuchi, stands as a primary source of Psoralene, owing to its high furocoumarin content. Indigenous to India and other regions of Asia, Psoralea corylifolia seeds have been prized for their medicinal properties in traditional Ayurvedic medicine, where they are used to treat skin disorders, inflammatory conditions, and reproductive health issues. 

The seeds contain potent concentrations of Psoralene and other furocoumarins, making them a valuable resource for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.

Alternative Sources for Psoralene Extraction

While Psoralea corylifolia remains the primary source of Psoralene, alternative botanical sources containing furocoumarins have garnered attention for their potential in Psoralene extraction. Plants belonging to the Apiaceae family, such as celery, parsley, and dill, contain varying levels of furocoumarins, including Psoralene, bergapten, and xanthotoxin. 

Research exploring the feasibility of utilizing these botanical sources for Psoralene extraction is ongoing, with promising results suggesting their potential as sustainable alternatives to Psoralea corylifolia.

HimPharm Manufacturing Standards

HimPharm’s Role in Psoralene Production

HimPharm, a leading manufacturer of botanical extracts and phytochemicals, occupies a prominent position in the global Psoralene market, owing to its commitment to quality, innovation, and sustainability. 

With state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and rigorous quality control measures, HimPharm ensures the production of high-purity Psoralene extracts that meet international pharmacopoeial standards and regulatory requirements.

Upholding International Quality Standards

HimPharm’s manufacturing processes adhere to stringent quality standards, confirming to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and ISO certifications. 

By implementing robust quality control protocols at every stage of production, from raw material procurement to final product formulation, HimPharm ensures the integrity, potency, and safety of its Psoralene extracts, earning the trust of pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical industries worldwide.

HimPharm’s Commitment to Bulk Requirements

HimPharm’s production capabilities extend to bulk manufacturing, catering to the diverse needs of clients across pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and dietary supplement sectors. With scalable production capacities and streamlined supply chain logistics, HimPharm delivers cost-effective solutions tailored to the specific requirements of each client, ensuring timely delivery of high-quality Psoralene extracts to global markets.

Psoralene Production Processes

Step-by-Step Manufacturing Process

The manufacturing process of Psoralene involves several sequential steps, beginning with the selection and procurement of raw materials rich in furocoumarin content, such as Psoralea corylifolia seeds. 

The extraction of Psoralene from the raw material entails solvent-based techniques or supercritical fluid extraction, followed by purification and concentration processes to yield high-purity Psoralene extracts.

Step 1: Raw Material Procurement

The manufacturing process commences with the meticulous selection and sourcing of Psoralea corylifolia seeds, ensuring optimal furocoumarin content and quality. HimPharm maintains stringent supplier qualification criteria, partnering with trusted cultivators and suppliers to procure premium-grade raw materials that meet pharmacopoeial standards and regulatory specifications.

Step 2: Extraction and Isolation

The extraction of Psoralene from Psoralea corylifolia seeds involves solvent-based extraction techniques or advanced supercritical fluid extraction methods. Solvents such as ethanol or methanol are utilized to extract furocoumarins, including Psoralene, from the plant material. Supercritical fluid extraction employs carbon dioxide under high pressure and temperature to selectively extract Psoralene while minimizing solvent residues and environmental impact.

Step 3: Purification and Refinement

The extracted crude extract undergoes purification and refinement processes to remove impurities, contaminants, and unwanted constituents, ensuring the production of high-purity Psoralene extracts. Chromatographic techniques, such as column chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), facilitate the isolation and purification of Psoralene from other furocoumarins and plant matrix components, enhancing product quality and consistency.

Step 4: Concentration and Standardization

Following purification, the Psoralene extract is concentrated to increase its potency and efficacy, ensuring optimal therapeutic outcomes in pharmaceutical and healthcare applications. Concentration methods, including evaporation, vacuum drying, or spray drying, enable the removal of solvent residues while concentrating the active constituents, resulting in standardized Psoralene extracts with precise concentration levels and bioactive profiles.

Step 5: Quality Control and Assurance

Throughout the manufacturing process, stringent quality control measures are implemented to monitor the integrity, purity, and potency of Psoralene extracts. Analytical techniques, such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and UV-visible spectroscopy, enable the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Psoralene and related compounds, ensuring compliance with pharmacopoeial standards and regulatory requirements.

Step 6: Packaging

The finalized Psoralene extracts are are packed. The Psoralene undergo stringent quality assurance checks and labeling compliance before distribution to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical industrial users worldwide.

Navigating Production Challenges and Solutions

Addressing Production Bottlenecks

The production of Psoralene extracts entails inherent challenges and complexities, ranging from raw material variability to process optimization and regulatory compliance. HimPharm employs a proactive approach to identify and address potential bottlenecks, leveraging its expertise, infrastructure, and technological innovations to streamline manufacturing operations and enhance productivity.

Raw Material Sourcing and Sustainability

Ensuring a consistent and sustainable supply of raw materials remains a cornerstone of Psoralene production at HimPharm. Through strategic partnerships with certified growers and sustainable agriculture practices, HimPharm promotes environmental stewardship and biodiversity conservation while safeguarding the integrity and quality of its raw material supply chain.

Process Optimization and Innovation

HimPharm continuously invests in research and development initiatives aimed at optimizing Psoralene manufacturing processes and enhancing product quality and performance. By integrating cutting-edge technologies, automation, and process analytics, HimPharm maximizes operational efficiency, minimizes production costs, and accelerates time-to-market for Psoralene products, ensuring competitive advantages in the global marketplace.

Regulatory Compliance and Quality Assurance

Compliance with international quality standards and regulatory requirements is vital to HimPharm’s commitment to excellence and customer satisfaction. Through ongoing training, audits, and quality management systems, HimPharm maintains adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and other regulatory frameworks, ensuring the safety, efficacy, and integrity of Psoralene products across global markets.

HimPharm’s Manufacturing Advantage

HimPharm’s manufacturing advantage lies in its integration of technology, quality control, and their commitment to sustainability. This holistic approach ensures that HimPharm remains at the forefront of Psoralene natural production, meeting the evolving demands of the product from the various industries worldwide.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Psoralene stands as a versatile and indispensable compound in the pharmaceutical, healthcare, and natural products industries, offering a variety of therapeutic applications and clinical benefits. From its historical roots in traditional medicine to its modern-day prominence in dermatology and immunology, Psoralene continues to shape the landscape of natural healthcare and wellness.

HimPharm’s unwavering commitment to quality, innovation, and sustainability underscores its leadership in Psoralene manufacturing, empowering clients worldwide with premium-grade Psoralene extracts and customized solutions tailored to their specific needs. 

As a trusted partner in pharmaceutical and healthcare industries, HimPharm remains dedicated to advancing the science of botanical extracts and phytochemicals, driving innovation and excellence in global healthcare delivery.

By harnessing the power of nature and modern science, HimPharm and Psoralene pave the way for a healthier, more sustainable future, where botanical medicines and natural remedies play a pivotal role in promoting wellness and vitality for generations to come.

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