Quinine

Quinine Sulphate
Quinine Hydrochloride

Written by

Reviewed by

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Gaurav Sood

Partner - HimPharm

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Dr B M Sood

Chairman - HimPharm

Quinine & Quinine Derivatives Manufactured by HimPharm

Category: Phytochemical
Trade Names: Qualaquin, Quinamm, Quiphile,
Routes of Administration: Oral, Intravenous, Intramuscular
ATC Code: P01BC01

Identifiers

  • CAS Number: 130-95-0
  • PubChem CID: 3034034
  • ChemSpider ID: 2293
  • DrugBank ID: DB00468
  • UNII: F5VV1L20OV

Chemical and Physical Data

  • Molecular Formula C20H24N2O2
  • Molar Mass 324.42 g/mol

SMILES: CC1=C(C(CCC1)(C)C)C2=CC(=CN=C2)C3=C(C(=C(C=C3)OC)OC)O

InChI: InChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(23-2)11-17(16)18/h4-6,8,11-14,19,21H,3,7,9-10H2,1-2H3

Introduction

Quinine stands as a natural white crystalline alkaloid renowned for its multifaceted properties, encompassing antipyretic, antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory attributes, alongside its distinct bitter taste. Originating from the bark of the cinchona tree, it holds a pivotal place in medicinal history, particularly in combating malaria. 

Quinine’s discovery dates back to 1820, marking a pivotal milestone in the therapeutic landscape, as it became the first chemical compound utilized to treat an infectious disease. 

With its molecular formula of C20H24N2O2, Quinine emerges as a potent blood schizonticidal agent, effectively targeting the asexual erythrocytic forms of various Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax. However, it remains inactive against sporozoites or preerythrocytic forms of plasmodia. 

Despite its bitter taste, Quinine serves as a vital component in tonic water, contributing to its characteristic flavor profile.

Quinine

Impact of Quinine on Pharmaceutical, Drug, and Natural Products Industry

The advent of Quinine revolutionized the approach to malaria treatment, significantly impacting the pharmaceutical, drug, and natural products industries. Its efficacy in combating chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum proved instrumental in addressing the escalating challenge of drug resistance. 

Furthermore, Quinine’s versatility extends beyond malaria treatment, finding applications in nocturnal leg cramps and babesiosis therapy. Quinine’s historical significance transcends its medicinal prowess, shaping cultural phenomena such as the renowned gin and tonic cocktail. 

Originating from British colonials in India, who ingeniously combined Quinine-infused tonic water with gin to mitigate its bitter taste, the concoction has endured as a classic beverage choice.

In essence, Quinine’s profound impact underscores its pivotal role in shaping therapeutic interventions and cultural practices, bridging the realms of science, medicine, and societal customs.

Understanding Quinine, Quinine Sulphate & Quinine Hydrochloride

What is Quinine?

Quinine, classified as a basic amine, represents a key alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. Its molecular structure, comprising carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms, imbues it with distinctive pharmacological properties, rendering it indispensable in malaria therapy and beyond.

What is Quinine used in?

Quinine finds primary utilization in malaria treatment, particularly in cases resistant to chloroquine. Additionally, it serves as a therapeutic option for addressing nocturnal leg cramps and babesiosis. Furthermore, Quinine’s inclusion in tonic water underscores its historical association with combating malaria in colonial times.

What does it look like?

Quinine manifests as a white crystalline substance with a characteristic bitter taste. Its crystalline structure reflects its purity and potency, making it a valuable asset in pharmaceutical formulations.

Where does it come from – how is it obtained or processed?

Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree, predominantly sourced from regions such as South America and Asia. The extraction process involves macerating the bark, followed by solvent extraction and purification to isolate Quinine alkaloids.

Why is it considered important?

Quinine’s significance stems from its efficacy in malaria treatment, particularly in regions plagued by drug-resistant strains. Its ability to target Plasmodium parasites underscores its indispensable role in global health initiatives aimed at eradicating malaria.

Where does it find use in?

Quinine finds widespread utilization in the pharmaceutical industry for malaria therapy, as well as in the beverage industry, imparting its characteristic bitter taste to tonic water. Moreover, its applications extend to nocturnal leg cramp alleviation and babesiosis treatment, reflecting its versatile pharmacological profile.

What is the history of Quinine?

  • Where was it discovered? Quinine’s discovery traces back to the early 19th century, when it was first isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree in South America, particularly in Peru and Ecuador.
  • Who discovered it? French scientists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou are credited with isolating Quinine from cinchona bark in 1820, marking a significant breakthrough in medicinal chemistry.
  • What is the story behind its discovery? The discovery of Quinine unfolded against the backdrop of escalating malaria outbreaks across continents. The fortuitous encounter with cinchona bark by indigenous populations in South America laid the foundation for its therapeutic potential, ultimately leading to its isolation and characterization.
  • How did Quinine progress to its current state? Quinine’s journey from botanical curiosity to pharmaceutical mainstay witnessed significant advancements in extraction techniques, formulation strategies, and therapeutic applications. Its pivotal role in malaria treatment and cultural phenomena such as the gin and tonic cocktail underscores its enduring legacy in human history.

Exploring Quinine and its use in Pharmaceuticals, Health, and the Drug Industry

Quinine Uses and Properties

Quinine boasts a spectrum of pharmacological properties that render it indispensable across various therapeutic domains. Its primary role lies in combating malaria, particularly in cases resistant to conventional antimalarial agents like chloroquine. As a blood schizonticidal agent, Quinine effectively targets the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium parasites, including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax.

Furthermore, Quinine exhibits analgesic properties, making it a viable option for alleviating nocturnal leg cramps, a condition characterized by involuntary muscle contractions during sleep. Its anti-inflammatory attributes contribute to its efficacy in managing inflammatory conditions, albeit with caution due to its potential side effects.

Beyond its therapeutic applications, Quinine finds usage in the beverage industry, notably as a flavor component in tonic water. Its bitter taste not only enhances the sensory experience but also harks back to its historical role in combating malaria in colonial times.

List of Uses and Their Explanation

  1. Malaria Treatment: Quinine serves as a frontline therapy for malaria, particularly in regions where chloroquine resistance is prevalent. Its mechanism of action involves targeting the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium parasites, thereby curbing disease progression and mitigating complications.
  2. Nocturnal Leg Cramp Alleviation: Quinine’s analgesic properties make it a viable option for managing nocturnal leg cramps, offering relief from muscle spasms and discomfort during sleep. However, its usage in this context requires careful consideration due to potential side effects and regulatory restrictions.
  3. Babesiosis Therapy: Quinine’s antiprotozoal activity extends to babesiosis, a parasitic infection transmitted by ticks. While not a first-line treatment, Quinine may be considered in select cases where conventional therapies prove ineffective.
  4. Anti-inflammatory Agent: Quinine exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, albeit with limitations and potential adverse effects. Its use in managing inflammatory conditions necessitates cautious monitoring and adherence to prescribed dosages to mitigate risks.
  5. Tonic Water Flavoring: Quinine’s bitter taste lends itself to various beverage formulations, notably tonic water. Beyond its historical association with malaria prophylaxis, Quinine imparts a distinct flavor profile sought after in mixology and culinary applications.

Additional Properties

Apart from its therapeutic uses, Quinine possesses several additional properties that merit attention:

  • Antipyretic Activity: Quinine demonstrates fever-reducing properties, making it a valuable adjunct in managing febrile illnesses, including certain infectious diseases.
  • Antimalarial Resistance Management: As a viable alternative to chloroquine-resistant malaria strains, Quinine plays a crucial role in combating drug resistance and preserving treatment efficacy.
  • Historical Significance: Quinine’s historical role in combating malaria and shaping cultural practices underscores its enduring legacy and relevance in modern medicine.

In essence, Quinine’s multifaceted properties and diverse applications underscore its significance in pharmaceuticals, health, and the broader spectrum of human well-being.

The Raw Material from which Quinine is Obtained: Natural Source for Quinine

Raw Material Overview

Quinine, a remarkable alkaloid with potent antimalarial properties, traces its origins to the bark of the Cinchona tree. This botanical marvel serves as the primary reservoir for Quinine, harboring high concentrations of the alkaloid within its bark. 

The Cinchona tree, indigenous to the Andean regions of South America, is renowned for its historical significance in the treatment of malaria and its pivotal role in shaping the course of medical history.

  1. What is the Raw Material? The raw material for Quinine extraction primarily comprises the bark of the Cinchona tree, known for its rich reservoir of alkaloids with therapeutic potential.
  2. Where is it Found? The Cinchona tree thrives in the lush, mountainous terrain of South America, particularly in regions spanning Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, where it finds optimal conditions for growth and propagation. However, it is also found in India and nearby Asian countries. 
  3. What is its Botanical Name? The Cinchona tree belongs to the genus Cinchona and encompasses several species, each contributing to the diverse array of alkaloids found within its bark.

Alternative Sources of Raw Material for Extracting Quinine

While the Cinchona tree remains the primary source of Quinine, advancements in biotechnology and synthetic chemistry have spurred exploration into alternative avenues for Quinine production. Synthetic methodologies offer the prospect of circumventing the logistical challenges associated with sourcing natural Quinine, providing a sustainable and cost-effective alternative for meeting global demand.

Additionally, biotechnological approaches, including microbial fermentation and plant tissue culture, offer promising avenues for Quinine production. These innovative techniques leverage the inherent metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and plant cells to biosynthesize Quinine and its derivatives in controlled laboratory settings.

However, despite the allure of synthetic and biotechnological approaches, the Cinchona tree retains its status as the quintessential source of Quinine, revered for its historical legacy and botanical richness.

In summary, while alternative sources of Quinine hold promise for addressing supply chain constraints and expanding production capacities, the Cinchona tree remains irreplaceable in its role as nature’s reservoir of Quinine and a symbol of medicinal heritage.

HimPharm Manufacturing Standards

HimPharm’s Role in Quinine Production

HimPharm is a Quinine Manufacturer and has been manufacturing Quinine for a few decades by leveraging their experience and edge manufacturing practices to deliver premium-quality Quinine derivatives including Quinine HCL & Quinine Sulfate. With a rich legacy dating back to 1979, HimPharm stands as a beacon of excellence in the pharmaceutical industry, epitomizing innovation, integrity, and unwavering commitment to quality.

At the heart of HimPharm’s Quinine production lies a relentless pursuit of excellence, characterized by stringent quality control measures and adherence to international regulatory standards. Through a harmonious blend of tradition and technology, HimPharm crafts Quinine derivatives of unparalleled purity and potency, catering to the diverse needs of global pharmaceutical markets.

Upholding International Quality Standards

HimPharm’s unwavering commitment to quality extends beyond mere compliance with regulatory mandates, encompassing a culture of continuous improvement and innovation. Every stage of the manufacturing process, from raw material procurement to final product formulation, undergoes rigorous scrutiny to ensure adherence to international quality benchmarks.

Moreover, HimPharm’s state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities are equipped with advanced analytical instrumentation and quality control protocols, enabling real-time monitoring and assessment of product integrity. Through meticulous attention to detail and adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), HimPharm ensures that its Quinine derivatives meet the highest standards of safety, efficacy, and purity.

HimPharm’s Commitment to Fulfilling Your Bulk Requirements for Quinine

As a trusted partner in pharmaceutical manufacturing, HimPharm is a Quinine manufacturer in India dedicated to meeting the diverse needs of its clientele, including bulk requirements for Quinine derivatives. Whether servicing the demands of multinational pharmaceutical conglomerates or catering to niche market segments, HimPharm offers scalable production capacities and flexible manufacturing solutions to accommodate varying order volumes.

Furthermore, HimPharm’s robust supply chain management practices and streamlined logistics ensure timely delivery of Quinine derivatives to clients worldwide. With a steadfast focus on customer satisfaction and operational excellence, HimPharm stands poised to address the evolving needs of the pharmaceutical industry, driving innovation and value creation across the supply chain.

In essence, HimPharm’s unwavering commitment to manufacturing excellence, coupled with its customer-centric approach, positions it as a preferred partner for sourcing premium-quality Quinine derivatives and driving transformative change in the global pharmaceutical landscape.

Quinine Production Processes

Details of the Step-by-Step Manufacturing Process of Quinine

The manufacturing journey of Quinine unfolds through a meticulously orchestrated series of steps, each contributing to the synthesis and purification of this invaluable alkaloid. HimPharm’s state-of-the-art facilities and cutting-edge technologies enable the seamless execution of each manufacturing stage, ensuring the production of Quinine derivatives of uncompromising quality and purity.

Step 1: Raw Material Procurement The process commences with the meticulous selection and procurement of high-quality Cinchona bark, sourced from trusted suppliers adhering to stringent quality standards. The bark, rich in Quinine alkaloids, serves as the primary raw material for Quinine extraction.

Step 2: Extraction and Isolation The Cinchona bark undergoes extraction using solvent-based techniques, where the alkaloids are dissolved and isolated from the plant material. This process involves the careful selection of solvents and extraction conditions to optimize yield and purity.

Step 3: Purification The extracted Quinine undergoes purification to remove impurities and unwanted compounds, ensuring the final product meets pharmaceutical-grade standards. Various purification techniques, including chromatography and crystallization, are employed to achieve optimal purity and potency.

Step 4: Concentration Following purification, the Quinine extract is concentrated to enhance the potency and efficacy of the alkaloid. Concentration techniques, such as evaporation and distillation, are utilized to increase the concentration of Quinine in the final product.

Step 5: Quality Control Testing Throughout the manufacturing process, rigorous quality control testing is conducted to assess the purity, potency, and safety of the Quinine derivatives. Analytical techniques, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectroscopy, are employed to ensure adherence to pharmacopeial standards and regulatory requirements.

Step 6: Packaging and Distribution Upon successful completion of quality control testing, the finalized Quinine derivatives undergo packaging and labeling procedures before distribution to pharmaceutical companies, healthcare institutions, and bulk consumers worldwide. Packaging materials are selected to ensure product integrity, stability, and compliance with regulatory guidelines.

Testing in Quinine Manufacturing

Quality control testing serves as a cornerstone of Quinine manufacturing at HimPharm, encompassing a comprehensive array of analytical techniques and validation protocols to ensure product integrity and potency. Through meticulous testing and analysis, HimPharm maintains the highest standards of quality and safety across its Quinine product portfolio.

  • Identity Testing: Verification of the botanical identity and authenticity of the raw material through macroscopic and microscopic examination, ensuring compliance with pharmacopeial standards and specifications.
  • Purity Analysis: Assessment of the purity of the Quinine extract through chemical analysis, chromatography, and spectroscopic techniques, detecting and quantifying impurities and contaminants to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.
  • Potency Assay: Determination of the concentration and potency of Quinine alkaloids in the final product, validating therapeutic efficacy and consistency across batches through bioassays and quantitative analysis.
  • Microbiological Testing: Screening for microbial contaminants, including bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins, to ensure product safety and compliance with pharmacopeial standards and regulatory guidelines.
  • Stability Testing: Evaluation of the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of Quinine derivatives under various storage conditions, assessing shelf-life and product integrity over time to ensure patient safety and efficacy.

Navigating Production Bottlenecks in Quinine Manufacturing

In the dynamic landscape of pharmaceutical manufacturing, production bottlenecks pose inherent challenges that require proactive management and innovative solutions. HimPharm remains vigilant in identifying and addressing potential bottlenecks, leveraging its expertise, infrastructure, and technological capabilities to streamline production processes and enhance operational efficiency.

Raw Material Sourcing: Ensuring a consistent and reliable supply of high-quality Cinchona bark, HimPharm collaborates with trusted suppliers and implements robust procurement strategies to mitigate supply chain risks and fluctuations in raw material availability.

Process Optimization: Continuously optimizing manufacturing processes to enhance efficiency, throughput, and resource utilization, HimPharm employs lean manufacturing principles and advanced process technologies to minimize waste and maximize productivity.

Regulatory Compliance: Navigating complex regulatory requirements and ensuring adherence to international quality standards, HimPharm maintains robust quality management systems and conducts regular audits and inspections to uphold compliance with regulatory guidelines.

Supply Chain Logistics: Managing logistics and distribution channels to minimize lead times and ensure timely delivery of Quinine derivatives to clients worldwide, HimPharm employs sophisticated supply chain management practices and strategic partnerships to optimize inventory levels and mitigate transportation risks.

In summary, HimPharm’s proactive approach to production bottlenecks, coupled with its commitment to operational excellence and innovation, positions it as a trusted partner in Quinine manufacturing, driving efficiency, reliability, and value creation across the pharmaceutical supply chain.

HimPharm’s Manufacturing Advantage

How HimPharm Helps Overcome Challenges and Ensures Quality

HimPharm’s manufacturing advantage lies in its unwavering commitment to excellence, innovation, and customer satisfaction. With decades of experience and a legacy of pharmaceutical manufacturing, HimPharm is poised to meet the evolving needs of the global market, offering a comprehensive suite of services and solutions tailored to the pharmaceutical, healthcare, and nutraceutical industries.

  • Expertise and Experience Backed by a team of seasoned professionals and industry experts, HimPharm brings a wealth of knowledge and expertise to the manufacturing process. With a deep understanding of pharmaceutical regulations, quality standards, and market trends, HimPharm collaborates closely with clients to develop customized solutions that meet their specific requirements and objectives.
  • State-of-the-Art Facilities HimPharm’s modern manufacturing facilities are equipped with state-of-the-art technology and infrastructure, enabling the production of high-quality Quinine derivatives at scale. From raw material handling to formulation and packaging, every aspect of the manufacturing process is meticulously managed and monitored to ensure product integrity, purity, and potency.
  • Quality Assurance and Compliance At HimPharm, quality assurance is paramount. Stringent quality control measures are implemented throughout the manufacturing process to uphold the highest standards of quality and safety. From raw material testing to finished product analysis, HimPharm’s quality assurance protocols encompass a comprehensive range of tests and inspections to verify compliance with regulatory requirements and customer specifications.
  • Scalability and Flexibility HimPharm’s manufacturing capabilities are designed to accommodate a wide range of production volumes and requirements. Whether clients require small-scale batches for clinical trials or large-scale production runs for commercial distribution, HimPharm has the flexibility and scalability to meet their needs. With agile production processes and adaptable manufacturing systems, HimPharm can respond quickly to changes in demand and market dynamics.
  • Continuous Improvement and Innovation Driven by a culture of continuous improvement and innovation, HimPharm is committed to advancing its manufacturing processes, technologies, and capabilities. Through ongoing research and development initiatives, HimPharm explores new opportunities for product innovation, process optimization, and efficiency gains, ensuring its position at the forefront of pharmaceutical manufacturing excellence.

In conclusion, HimPharm’s manufacturing advantage is rooted in its unwavering dedication to quality, innovation, and customer satisfaction. With a focus on expertise, state-of-the-art facilities, quality assurance, scalability, and continuous improvement, HimPharm stands as a trusted partner in Quinine manufacturing, delivering value, reliability, and excellence to clients worldwide.

Conclusion

In summary, the journey through the world of Quinine and its derivatives unveils a fascinating tapestry of science, history, and innovation. From its humble origins in the bark of the Cinchona tree to its pivotal role in modern medicine, Quinine stands as a testament to the power of nature and human ingenuity.

Recap of Key Insights

Throughout this exploration, we have delved into the multifaceted nature of Quinine, uncovering its diverse pharmacological properties and therapeutic applications. From its antimalarial efficacy to its use as a bitter flavoring agent in tonic water, Quinine continues to shape the landscape of healthcare and wellness.

We have traced the historical trajectory of Quinine, from its discovery by Jesuit missionaries in the New World to its widespread adoption as a frontline treatment for malaria. Along the way, we have encountered tales of exploration, scientific inquiry, and medical breakthroughs, highlighting the profound impact of Quinine on human history and society.

Leveraging HimPharm’s Commitment to Quality

As we navigate the complex terrain of pharmaceutical manufacturing, HimPharm emerges as a beacon of excellence and reliability. With its decades-long legacy of innovation and expertise, HimPharm remains steadfast in its commitment to delivering top-quality Quinine derivatives to the global market.

By harnessing the latest advancements in technology, adhering to stringent quality standards, and prioritizing customer satisfaction, HimPharm sets a new standard for excellence in Quinine production. Whether clients seek bulk quantities of Quinine Sulphate or Quinine Hydrochloride, HimPharm stands ready to meet their needs with efficiency, precision, and integrity.

Empowering Your Pharmaceutical Endeavors

As you embark on your pharmaceutical journey, HimPharm stands as your trusted partner and ally. With its state-of-the-art facilities, unwavering commitment to quality, and dedication to innovation, HimPharm offers a gateway to success in the dynamic world of Quinine manufacturing.

Write to or Call HimPharm to Request a Quote, COA, and MSDS.

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